Actualités

Mao and the Mao Era

Séance spéciale de séminaire - Lundi 18 juin 2018 - 17:00Conférence d'Andrew Walder (Stanford University), directeur d’études invité à l’EHESS, dans le cadre du séminaire central du CERCEC, « 1918-2018. Mondes russe, caucasien, centre-asiatique et centre-européen : sources et méthodes. Fronts et frontières d'Empire ».Andrew Walder est titulaire de la chaire Denise O’Leary & Kent Thiry au département de sociologie de Stanford. Un des meilleurs spécialistes du maoïsme et de la Révolution culturelle, il a consacré plusieurs ouvrages et articles importants à celle-ci et notamment aux conflits entre Gardes rouges (Fractured Rebellion: The Beijing Red Guard Movement, Harvard, 2009). Plus récemment, il a publié un ouvrage synthétique proposant un bilan de l’expérience maoïste (China Under Mao: A Revolution Derailed, Harvard, 2015).RésuméAs the Mao era, and in particular the Cultural Revolution fade in memory, its history has fallen out of focus and has been infused with myth. Drawing on his recent book, China Under Mao: A Revolution Derailed (Harvard 2015), Walder will take up two related questions. First, what were Mao’s intentions and what were the actual outcomes of his radical initiatives? Second, why did these outcomes occur? Mao emerges from the historical record as a revolutionary whose radicalism was undiminished by the passage of time. His initiatives frequently had consequences that he had not intended and that frustrated his designs. Despite creating China’s first unified modern national state and initiating its industrialization drive, Mao left China divided, backward, and weak.

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Rebellion and Repression in China, 1966-1969

Séance spéciale de séminaire - Vendredi 08 juin 2018 - 10:00Conférence d'Andrew Walder (Stanford University), directeur d’études invité à l’EHESS par Sebastian Veg (CCJ-CECMC), dans le cadre du séminaire d'Isabelle Thireau, « Enquêtes et regards des sociologues chinois sur le monde chinois ».Andrew Walder est titulaire de la chaire Denise O’Leary & Kent Thiry au département de sociologie de Stanford. Un des meilleurs spécialistes du maoïsme et de la Révolution culturelle, il a consacré plusieurs ouvrages et articles importants à celle-ci et notamment aux conflits entre Gardes rouges (Fractured Rebellion: The Beijing Red Guard Movement, Harvard, 2009). Plus récemment, il a publié un ouvrage synthétique proposant un bilan de l’expérience maoïste (China Under Mao: A Revolution Derailed, Harvard, 2015).RésuméIn the first four years after the onset of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, one of the largest political upheavals of the 20th century paralyzed a highly centralized party state, leading to a harsh regime of military control. Despite a wave of post-Mao revelations in the 1980s, knowledge about the nationwide impact of this insurgency and its suppression remains selective and impressionistic, based primarily on a handful of local accounts. Employing a dataset drawn from historical narratives published in 2,213 county and city annals, this article charts the temporal and geographic spread of a mass insurgency, its evolution through time, and the repression through which militarized state structures were rebuilt. Comparisons of published figures with internal investigation reports, and statistical estimates from sample selection models, yield an estimate of close to 1.6 million deaths and 30 million direct victims of some form of political persecution. The vast majority of casualties were due to repression by authorities, not the actions of insurgents. Despite the large overall death toll, per capita death rates were considerably lower than a range of comparable cases, including the Soviet purges at the height of Stalinist terror in the late 1930s.

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China’s Historical Trajectory

Séance spéciale de séminaire - Mercredi 30 mai 2018 - 11:00Conférence d'Andrew Walder (Stanford University), directeur d’études invité à l’EHESS, dans le cadre du séminaire de Sebastian Veg, « Historiography of Maoism: new interpretations ».Andrew Walder est titulaire de la chaire Denise O’Leary & Kent Thiry au département de sociologie de Stanford. Un des meilleurs spécialistes du maoïsme et de la Révolution culturelle, il a consacré plusieurs ouvrages et articles importants à celle-ci et notamment aux conflits entre Gardes rouges (Fractured Rebellion: The Beijing Red Guard Movement, Harvard, 2009). Plus récemment, il a publié un ouvrage synthétique proposant un bilan de l’expérience maoïste (China Under Mao: A Revolution Derailed, Harvard, 2015).RésuméContrary to its initiators’ intentions, the Cultural Revolution laid political foundations for a transition to a market-oriented economy, while also creating circumstances that helped ensure the cohesion and survival of China’s Soviet-style party-state. The Cultural Revolution left the Communist Party and civilian state structures weak and in flux, and drastically weakened entrenched bureaucratic interests that might have blocked market reform. The weakening of central government structures created a decentralized planned economy whose regional and local leaders were receptive to initial market-oriented opportunities. The economic and technological backwardness fostered by the Cultural Revolution left little support for maintaining status quo. Mao put Deng Xiaoping in charge of rebuilding the party and economy briefly in the mid-1970s before purging him a second time, inadvertently making him the standard-bearer for post-Mao rebuilding and recovery. Mutual animosities with the Soviet Union provoked by Maoist polemics led to a surprising strategic turn to the United States and other western countries in the early 1970s, which subsequently advanced the agenda of reform and opening. The impact of this legacy becomes especially clear when contrasted with the Soviet Union in the 1980s, where circumstances were very different, and where Gorbachev’s attempts to implement similar changes in the face of entrenched bureaucratic interests led to the collapse and dismemberment of the Soviet state.

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Use of capital in sea-faring activities in the 16th-18th century China

Séance spéciale de séminaire - Mercredi 02 mai 2018 - 11:00Invité par l’Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient (Paola Calanca), le Professeur Chen Kuo-tung 陳國棟 (Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taïwan) donnera une conférence dans le cadre du séminaire de François Gipouloux et Aleksandra Kobiljski, Aux origines de la mondialisation et de la divergence Europe-Asie.Sa conférence s'intitule : “Use of capital in sea-faring activities in the 16th-18th century China".Elle aura lieu Mercredi 2 mai 2018, de 11h à 13h à l'EHESS (salle 07-51), 54 bd Raspail 75006 Paris. AbstractSea-faring activities are full of risks and uncertainty.  Building and operating a Chinese ship (junk) also cost a lot of money.  In order to raise large amount of capital or to reduce their own risk, several methods were adopted by the people working in the line of sea-faring business.  I mean to talk about the cost of ship-building, investment of cargoes, partnership for overseas adventure, and bottomry (a special maritime insurance design), etc. of the 16-18th century.

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Enquêter en Chine et en Russie :  A la recherche d’appuis communs pour la réflexion

Journée(s) d'étude - Mardi 13 mars 2018 - 09:00Une journée d’études consacrée aux «  Formes de présence du passé » en Chine et en Russie est organisée à l’EHESS, le mardi 13 mars 2018.OrganisationFrançoise Daucé (EHESS) et Isabelle Thireau (EHESS)ProgrammeEnquêter en Chine et en Russie : A la recherche d’appuis communs pour la réflexion. Journée 2 : «  Formes de présence du passé » - 13 mars 2018.  EHESS (salle 8), 105 bd Raspail, 75 006 Paris. 9h00 : Accueil et propos introductif 9h15-12h15 : Rendre publics les récits du passé Modératrice : Françoise Sabban (Directrice d'études, EHESS) Luba Jurgenson (Professeur, Sorbonne-Universités)Témoignages littéraires du Goulag. Sebastian Veg (Directeur d'études, EHESS)La réflexion sur l’époque maoïste: du récit victimaire des élites à la mémoire des subalternes 10h45 - 11h00 : Pause Bella Ostromooukhova (Maîtresse de conférences, Sorbonne-Universités)Présences du passé soviétique dans la littérature russe actuelle : enjeux éditoriaux, politiques et humains Discussion générale 12h15-14h00 : Déjeuner 14h00 -  17h30 : Donner à voir l'histoire et en débattre Modératrice : Elisabeth Claverie (Directrice de recherches, CNRS) Judith Pernin (Docteur associée, CEFC).Filmer des témoignages et mettre en scène l'histoire non officielle dans le documentaire indépendant chinois Irina Tcherneva (Chercheuse rattachée au CERCEC)Pratiques du récit historique dans le documentaire soviétique : rôle du témoignage et des archives visuelles (1957-1972) 16h00 - 16h15 : Pause Isabelle Thireau (Directrice d'études, EHESS)Où se souvenir ensemble de la place Shengli? Discussion générale  

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Small Words, Weighty Matters: Gossip, Knowledge and Libel in Early Republican China, 1916-1928

Conférence - Lundi 05 février 2018 - 17:00Dans le cadre de l’axe de recherche Des sociétés face aux États et du projet ANR  ChinaSpheres : les sphères publiques alternatives en Chine au 20e siècle, Jing Zhang, post-doctorante au Centre Chine Corée Japon présentera une conférence intitulée : "Small Words, Weighty Matters: Gossip, Knowledge and Libel in Early Republican China, 1916-1928". AbstractIn the years following the death of the autocratic ruler Yuan Shikai (1859-1916), the flow of gossip surrounding political leaders in China’s urban spheres revealed an open, disorderly yet robust arena full of competing voices, agendas, and manipulations . My dissertation examines gossip as both a new body of public political knowledge and a means of popular participation in this politically-fragmented and transitional era. On the one hand, this body of political knowledge engaged a wide spectrum of Chinese society engaged with this body of political knowledge, and which fostered an uncontrolled playful citizenship in China’s urban spaces. On the other hand, this new civic participation prompted the fledgling Republican state to curb the dissemination of information through censorship, legal avenues and political prapaganda. I argue that political gossip played a constructive role in forming a participatory political culture, in developing state mechanisms to discipline popular knowledge, and in shaping legal categories of defamation. As opposed to other studies that analyze the formation of Chinese citizenship in the process of nation-building, my project contextualizes the popular political participation in the Republican era within a broader shift in political culture that was increasingly shaped by the entertainment media. Lower- class information traders and a commoner audience dominated in the gossip economy by actively producing and consuming narratives and opinions, without being too much restricted by state education and elite activism. About the speakerJing Zhang recently joined the CNRS as a postdoctoral researcher for the project “Alternative Public Spheres in 20th century China”. From 2010 to 2017, she studied Modern Chinese History in the Ph.D Program at the Department of East Asian Languages and Culture, Columbia University. Previously, she received an M.A degree in Chinese History from the Department of Chinese Studies in National University of Singapore and B.A in Chinese Literature from Peking University, China. Her research interest lies in Chinese urban society, communication history, legal history, popular culture of East Asian countries, etc. She is working on the early Republican, in particular the warlord period (1916-1928), popular political engagement through the channels of gossip and rumor about political leaders and various state coping strategies in a highly commercialized urban context.La séance, ouverte à tous, aura lieu en anglais.

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Small Words, Weighty Matters: Gossip, Knowledge and Libel in Early Republican China, 1916-1928

Conférence - Lundi 05 février 2018 - 17:00Dans le cadre de l’axe de recherche Des sociétés face aux États et du projet ANR  ChinaSpheres : les sphères publiques alternatives en Chine au 20e siècle, Jing Zhang, post-doctorante au Centre Chine Corée Japon présentera une conférence intitulée : "Small Words, Weighty Matters: Gossip, Knowledge and Libel in Early Republican China, 1916-1928". AbstractIn the years following the death of the autocratic ruler Yuan Shikai (1859-1916), the flow of gossip surrounding political leaders in China’s urban spheres revealed an open, disorderly yet robust arena full of competing voices, agendas, and manipulations . My dissertation examines gossip as both a new body of public political knowledge and a means of popular participation in this politically-fragmented and transitional era. On the one hand, this body of political knowledge engaged a wide spectrum of Chinese society engaged with this body of political knowledge, and which fostered an uncontrolled playful citizenship in China’s urban spaces. On the other hand, this new civic participation prompted the fledgling Republican state to curb the dissemination of information through censorship, legal avenues and political prapaganda. I argue that political gossip played a constructive role in forming a participatory political culture, in developing state mechanisms to discipline popular knowledge, and in shaping legal categories of defamation. As opposed to other studies that analyze the formation of Chinese citizenship in the process of nation-building, my project contextualizes the popular political participation in the Republican era within a broader shift in political culture that was increasingly shaped by the entertainment media. Lower- class information traders and a commoner audience dominated in the gossip economy by actively producing and consuming narratives and opinions, without being too much restricted by state education and elite activism. About the speakerJing Zhang recently joined the CNRS as a postdoctoral researcher for the project “Alternative Public Spheres in 20th century China”. From 2010 to 2017, she studied Modern Chinese History in the Ph.D Program at the Department of East Asian Languages and Culture, Columbia University. Previously, she received an M.A degree in Chinese History from the Department of Chinese Studies in National University of Singapore and B.A in Chinese Literature from Peking University, China. Her research interest lies in Chinese urban society, communication history, legal history, popular culture of East Asian countries, etc. She is working on the early Republican, in particular the warlord period (1916-1928), popular political engagement through the channels of gossip and rumor about political leaders and various state coping strategies in a highly commercialized urban context.La séance, ouverte à tous, aura lieu en anglais.

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Publicness beyond the public sphere

Colloque - Jeudi 21 juin 2018 - 09:00International conference organized by Columbia University and École des hautes études en sciences sociales. Supported by the Agence nationale de la recherche (project ChinaSpheres), PSL University, Weatherhead East Asia Institute, Columbia University. Present (...)(...)

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Rebellion and Repression in China, 1966-1969

Séance spéciale de séminaire - Vendredi 08 juin 2018 - 10:00Conférence d'Andrew Walder (Stanford University), directeur d’études invité à l’EHESS par Sebastian Veg (CCJ-CECMC), dans le cadre du séminaire d'Isabelle Thireau, « Enquêtes et regards des sociologues chinois sur le monde chinois ».And (...)(...)

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Mao and the Mao Era

Séance spéciale de séminaire - Lundi 18 juin 2018 - 17:00Conférence d'Andrew Walder (Stanford University), directeur d’études invité à l’EHESS, dans le cadre du séminaire central du CERCEC, « 1918-2018. Mondes russe, caucasien, centre-asiatique et centre-européen : sources et méthodes. Fronts et (...)(...)

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